Mount cdrom manually in Solaris

March 18, 2010

It actually happens a number of times that although you’ve inserted the disc in a sparc machine but still it refuses to mount the disk. One of the workaround is to restart the vold and vomgt daemons. But even the if you don’t see your cdrom mounted, you can do it manually as mentioned below:

First find the cdrom, i.e. we need to know the x in cxtxdx.

Fire the following command to find the actual path of cdrom:

ls -al /dev/sr*

This would look like something as follows:

bash-3.00# ls -al /dev/sr*
lrwxrwxrwx   1 root     root          12 Mar  8 14:14 /dev/sr0 -> dsk/c1t0d0s2

So here my cdrom is /dev/dsk/c1t0d0sx

We’re not yet sure about the slice no. so I’ve mentioned sx in above line.

Now we’ll ltry to mount the above slice manually:

mount -F hsfs /dev/dsk/c0t1d0s2 /mnt/cdrom

hsfs mount: /dev/dsk/c1t0d0s1 is not an hsfs file system.

If this fails then we can try for another slice:

mount -F hsfs /dev/dsk/c1t0d0s0 /mnt/cdrom

And it works this time, meaning our cdrom was at s0 slice.


Solaris Run Levels

November 12, 2009

The run levels in Solaris are little different than what you know about run levels in Linux. So, if you come from Linux background this could be little confusing initially.

There are total 8 run levels in Solaris. Default run level is 3. At a given point of time, a system can be in only one run level.

0    Power Down State
To shut down the operating system so that it is safe to turn off power to the system. This will bring the machine to Open Boot Prompt (OK)

s or S    Single User State
To run as a single user with some file systems mounted and accessible.

1     Administrative State
To access all available file systems. User logins are disabled.

2    Multiuser State
For normal operations. Multiple users can access the system and all file system. All daemons are running except for the NFS server daemons.

3    Multiuser level with NFS resources shared
For normal operations with NFS resources shared. This is the default run level for the Solaris environment.

4    Alternative multiuser state
Currently unavailable.

5    Power-down state
To shut down the operating system so that it is safe to turn off power to the system. If possible, automatically turns off power on systems that support this feature.

6    Reboot state
To shut down the system to run level 0, and then reboot to multiuser level with NFS resources shared (or whatever level is the default in the inittab file).


How to create a Solaris Flash Archive (Flar)

October 22, 2009

A solaris filesystem can be copied into an flash archive. This archive can then be used to install the Solaris OS on another system. Installation through flar is fast and efficient.

The format of the command is as follows:

# flarcreate -n name options path/filename

name
The name that you give the archive.

options
For a description of options, see The flar Command.

path
The path to the directory in which you want to save the archive file. If you do not specify a path, flarcreate saves the archive file in the current directory.

filename
The name of the archive file.

So for example I wan to create a flar with the name Solaris9 and the filename as myarchive.flar, the command will look like as mentioned below:

# flarcreate -n solaris9 -c myarchive.flar

where -c is an option to create compressed flar.

See the manpages for more options.


How to mount a iso file

June 21, 2009

So you’ve a cd image in iso format and you want to accesss it. Quite simple, it consists of two parts, creating a loopback device and then mounting this block device to any mount point.

1. Creating a loopdevice using lofiadm

# lofiadm -a /export/home/cdimage.iso /dev/lofi/1

If this file already exists then simply go for /dev/lofi/2 and so on.

2. Mounting the block device to a mount point

# mount -F hsfs -o ro /dev/lofi/1 /mnt/cdrom

Here hsfs is the filesystem type for CD-ROM/DVD on Solaris platform.

Fortunately there is a quicker alternative to firing both the commands. The output of these can be achieved in a single command

# mount -F hsfs -o ro `lofiadm -a /export/home/cdimage.iso` /mnt/cdrom

Ans so now you can access the iso like a mount cdrom at the mount point.

To unmont use ‘umount’ command and the mount point.

# umount /mnt/cdrom

And so you’re done.


How to change IP address

June 20, 2009

If your solaris system has a static address assigned to it and you wish to change it, simply update the files corresponding to your version of Solaris as explained below.

Solaris 9 and below change the IP in following file

/etc/hosts

Solaris 10 till update 3

/etc/hosts

/etc/inet/ipnodes

Solaris 10 update 4 and later

/etc/hosts

In case you also want to change your gateway, change the router address in…

/etc/defaultrouter

Also ensure that you have the correct netmask mentioned in the file…

/etc/netmasks

Create the netmasks file if it does not exist.